Splish Splash, Ritual Bath

Parshat Achrei Mot stresses the importance of becoming ritually pure through water. Leviticus 16 describes the ritual process. “Then Aaron is to go into the tent of meeting and take off the linen garments he put on before he entered the Most Holy Place, and he is to leave them there. He shall bathe himself with water in the sanctuary area and put on his regular garments. Then he shall come out and sacrifice the burnt offering for himself and the burnt offering for the people, to make atonement for himself and for the people.”

The ritual bathing can be required both before and after the service: “The man who releases the goat as a scapegoat must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp. The bull and the goat for the sin offerings, whose blood was brought into the Most Holy Place to make atonement, must be taken outside the camp; their hides, flesh and intestines are to be burned up. The man who burns them must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp.”

Achieving purity through water was an important part of the ritual service.

The ancient city of Jerusalem was built at the location that is today known as the City of David, and then rose in elevation to the Temple Mount. The Temple Mount sits between the Kidron Valley to the east and the Valley of Hinnom to its west. Pilgrims arriving from the south would ascend the hill towards the temple, to enter the temple through the Hulda Gates at the southern wall of the temple.

Between the lower lying City of David and the Temple Mount, just south of the southern temple wall, is an area known as the Ophel. It is a term that appears a number of times in the Bible, and apparently was in frequent need of repair. In 2 Chronicles Chapter 27, Jotham King of Judah rebuilt the Upper Gate of the temple of the Lord and did extensive work on the wall at the hill of the Ophel. In Nehemiah Chapter 3, “the temple servants living on the hill of Ophel made repairs up to a point opposite the Water Gate toward the east and the projecting tower. Next to them, the men of Tekoa repaired another section, from the great projecting tower to the wall of Ophel.”

During the Roman era of the 2nd temple period, at the Ophel, there were many mikvas, or ritual baths, and cisterns that fed the mikvas. Just before entering the Hulda Gates that lead to the temple, people arriving on their pilgrimage from the south could bathe, so that they would be cleansed from their long travels beyond the city. In Bobby Darin’s words, they could be “a-splishin’ and a-splashin… Long about a Saturday night” in order to enter the temple in a state of ritual purity.

These now dry mikvas, the stairs leading past them and the closed up Hulda Gates can be seen today in the Davidson Center, the archaeological park on the southern side of Jerusalem’s ancient temple walls.

Next Level Purity

Tazriah-Metzorah focus on ritual purity, the categories of impurities and the methods of becoming pure. The community presumed responsible for the Dead Sea Scrolls appear to have taken ritual purity to an entirely new level.

The Dead Sea Scrolls were initially discovered in 1947 in caves at Qumran, near the northwestern shores of the Dead Sea. Over time other scrolls were found along the western coast of the Dead Sea. The scrolls contain both biblical and non-biblical texts. The non-biblical portion includes scrolls that contain laws and beliefs particular to a sectarian group. They reveal a community that was highly focused on ritual purity, as seen in manuscripts such as the Community Rule, Miqsat Ma’ase HaTorah (MMT) and the Temple Scroll.

The Community Rule scroll shows that ritual purity was a prerequisite for joining this sectarian community. “And when his flesh is sprinkled with purifying water and sanctified by cleansing water, it shall be made clean by the humble submission of his soul to all the precepts of God…and he shall be accepted by virtue of pleasing atonement before God and it shall be to him a Covenant of the everlasting Community.”

The purity laws in the Miqsat Ma’ase HaTorah are stricter than those in the Torah. Some of the highlighted laws in the MMT are that gentile grain should not be brought into the Temple, dogs cannot enter Jerusalem and marriages between priests and Israelites are forbidden.

The Temple Scroll raises the bar over the Torah’s commandments about the Tabernacle. “Anyone who lies with his wife, for three days shall not enter anywhere in the city of the temple in which I shall install my name.”

There is a debate about who actually wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls. The consensus view is that the community responsible for them were the Essenes, a group mentioned by ancient historians Philo, Pliny the Elder and Josephus. This sectarian group appears to have taken the Bible’s purity laws to an illogical conclusion.

Philo writes of them, “They do not enlist by race, but by volunteers who have a zeal for righteousness and an ardent love of men. For this reason there are no young children among the Essenes. Not even adolescents or young men. Instead they are men of old or ripe years who have learned how to control their bodily passions…Seeing it as an obstacle to communal life, they have banned marriage.”

Pliny the Elder places this group just west of the Dead Sea, and says “They are a people unique of its kind and admirable beyond all others in the whole world; without women and renouncing love entirely, without money and having for company only palm trees.”

Josephus paints an even stricter picture. “But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish;…Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon.” And the stool here is not referring to a type of chair.

Some of the biblical instructions regarding purity seems harsh, but by comparison, they are mild compared to the version attributed to the Essenes.

Early Sign of McRib Avoidance

In Shemini, God delivers the laws of which animals are permissible to eat, and which may not be eaten. “You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews its cud. There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them…the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

Scientists order time periods in human history based on the types of tools that humans used. From simple beginnings with stone tools, humans learned how to smelt metals. Smelting technology improved and humans learned how to form progressively better tools made from copper, bronze and iron. Thus scientists refer to various periods as the Stone Age, Copper Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age.

In Canaan, the late 13th century BCE to the 12th century BCE is the transition period from Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age. At the end of the Late Bronze Age, the land was in decline. The Judean and Samarian hill country especially had few established cities or villages. Beginning with the Iron Age, the land experiences a population explosion, with a sharp increase in the number of villages.

These villages have unique properties. They have an unusual home design, commonly referred to as a four room house, the remains of which are shown in the photo above. The pottery is of a lower quality than that found in the surrounding area. And studies of animal remains show that these villagers avoided pig in their diet.

The Merneptah Stele found in Egypt and which dates to the late 13th century places an entity called Israel in the vicinity of the Judean and Samarian hill country. The source of this population and Israel is hotly debated by archaeologists. Wherever they came from, this group known as Israel’s had a specific cultural marker of avoiding pig in its diet.

During the same general timeframe of the transition from Late Bronze to Early Iron, a group known as the Sea Peoples sailed from somewhere in the Aegean Sea, around Greece, and invaded parts of the coastal Mediterranean. The group that landed in the southwestern corner of Canaan was known as the Peleset. They are assumed to be one and the same with the Philistines, who established themselves in five major cities: Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron and Gath. In contrast to the highland groups, they had higher quality pottery and the remains at the ‘Philistine Pentapolis,’ the five major Philistine cities, show that pig was a major part of their diet. 

Interestingly, the evidence of pig consumption in the highlands seems to match the narrative in the biblical books of 1 Kings and 2 Kings and the prophets. After King Solomon’s reign, the ‘United Monarchy’ of Kings David and Solomon split into two kingdoms, the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah. The Bible presents the Kingdom of Judah being more committed to God and his laws, while the Kingdom of Israel is presented as worshipping foreign Gods. This forsaking of God could appear in the diets. Animal remains from the 8th century BCE show that pigs were not part of the diet in the region of the Kingdom of Judah but did become part of the diet in the Kingdom of Israel in the 8th century BCE.

While many questions are unanswered, the timing and locations of pig remains could be evidence of pig avoidance as part of religious practice, and a sign that the early Israelites and later Judahites would have avoided the McRib sandwich.

Always Read the Sign

Parshat Tzav opens with laws of a guilt offering. “If anyone sins and is unfaithful to the Lord…as a penalty they must bring to the priest, that is, to the Lord, their guilt offering…In this way the priest will make atonement for them before the Lord, and they will be forgiven for any of the things they did that made them guilty.” The parshah continues with other sacrifices that only the priests can bring: Burnt, grain, sin. There were strict rules in the tabernacle about which individuals were allowed to enter and perform the services. The same laws applied in the temple in Jerusalem.

King Herod renovated the Second Temple in Jerusalem. One of his major steps was building walls to support an expanded platform on the Temple Mount. Yet he still preserved the sanctity of the place during construction. Josephus records that when King Herod renovated the temple, “the temple itself was built by the priests in a year and six months.” Herod maintained the purity of the place by using only priests for labor in locations where only priests were allowed to enter.

Various segments of the Temple Mount were not restricted to priests alone, but there was still a hierarchy of which individuals could have access to different areas. Non-Jews were subject to these restrictions by law, as evidenced by the Soreg Inscription, also known as the Temple Warning Inscription.

The Temple Warning Inscription dates to sometime between Herod’s building of the temple and its destruction at the hands of the Romans in 70 CE. The inscription is in Greek, reading: ΜΗΘΕΝΑ ΑΛΛΟΓΕΝΗ ΕΙΣΠΟΡΕΥΕΣΘΑΙ ΕΝΤΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΕΡΙ ΤΟ ΙΕΡΟΝ ΤΡΥΦΑΚΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΠΕΡΙΒΟΛΟΥ ΟΣ Δ ΑΝ ΛΗΦΘΗ ΕΑΥΤΩΙ ΑΙΤΙΟΣ ΕΣΤΑΙ ΔΙΑ ΤΟ ΕΞΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΕΙΝ ΘΑΝΑΤΟΝ. The transliteration of this statement is “METHENA ALLOGENE EISPOREYESTHAI ENTOS ΤΟΥ PERI ΤΟ IERON TRYPHAKTOU ΚΑΙ PERIBOLOU OS D ΑΝ LEPHTHE EAYTOI AITIOS ESTAI DIA ΤΟ EXAKOLOUTHEIN THANATON.” This translates to “No Gentile may enter beyond the dividing wall into the court around the Holy Place; whoever is caught will be to blame for his subsequent death.” The last word “ΘΑΝΑΤΟΝ,” pronounced THANATON, means ‘death.’ This inscription demonstrates that biblical prohibitions restricting entry to the temple were taken seriously. And that presumably, non-Jews would be expected to read Greek and would read the sign.

The Temple Warning Inscription was unearthed in 1871, when Jerusalem was under Ottoman rule. As a result, it is kept today at the Istanbul Archaeology Museums in Turkey. An image of it can be seen via the following link:

https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Temple_Warning_inscription.html

Carbon in the Korban

Parshat Vayikra leads off with the laws of sacrifices: ‘When anyone among you brings an offering to the Lord, bring as your offering an animal from either the cattle or the flock’…” This begins an extended stretch of chapters that discuss the different types of offerings that were to be brought in the tabernacle.

Near the end of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, before the First Jewish Revolt against Rome, the temple in Jerusalem had become a major center for animal sacrifice. Josephus claims that in 66 CE, just before the outbreak of hostilities, 256,500 lambs were sacrificed for the Passover holiday, to service 2.7 million people. That number would include sacrifices for Jews who lived outside of Judea and the Galilee. This large number may be an exaggeration. Papagayaio currently is the most popular all you can eat meat restaurant in Jerusalem, and even it doesn’t offer a one sheep for ten people option. Yet it points to Jerusalem being a major pilgrimage site and center for sacrifice.

Jerusalem’s Mt. Moriah, the site of the Temple Mount, sits between two valleys. Just past the eastern wall of the Temple Mount, the land descents into the Kidron Valley, shown in the image above. Archaeologists uncovered garbage deposits from the period of Roman rule that were dated to the first century BCE through the first century CE. The remains show a much higher ratio of animal bones relative to total remains than would be expected for a city this size. This indicates that many more animals were brought to Jerusalem, for use in the temple service.

Studies further demonstrate that the animals were not just local animals but were brought over great distances to Jerusalem. When animals consume food in their home location, they leave traces of that location in their bones. Scientists can study the unique makeup of the carbon and nitrogen left in the bones and determine the original location of the animal.

The carbon and nitrogen makeup of the bones found at the dump near the temple in Jerusalem was compared to the carbon and nitrogen makeup of bones found at dumps in Jerusalem further away from the temple. The results show that many of the bones at the temple were not from local animals, but that over a third of the animals came from regions on the eastern side of the Jordan River and from Arabia.

The outsized proportion of animal bones points to large numbers of animals being brought in to meet the large demand for sacrifice. The varying proportions of carbon and nitrogen show that animals were brought over large distances for use in sacrifice. The “When anyone among you brings an offering to the Lord, bring as your offering an animal from either the cattle or the flock” of Vayikra reached vast proportions and had a long geographical reach.

Parshus Repeatus Maximus

Parshat Vayakhel acts as a repetition of Parshat Terumah. In Terumah, God commands Israel to build a tabernacle and its furnishings. In Vayakhel, Israel builds the tabernacle and its furnishings. Similarly, the Roman emperor Domitian repeated the memorialization of the looting of the temple in Jerusalem with a second Arch of Titus in Rome.

The Roman Forum today contains the ruins of many buildings, but in ancient Rome it was the center of the city, between Rome’s many hills. Domitian built the Arch of Titus, commemorating the Roman victory against the First Jewish Revolt at the entrance to the Roman Forum. The Colosseum, built from the spoils of the defeated First Jewish Revolt, sat just off to the east. Directly south of the Roman Forum was Circus Maximus.

Circus Maximus was a stadium designed for chariot races with a capacity of two to three times more people than the Colosseum. It had a long oval shape, with a long narrow infield that the chariots circled. In modern times, the presence of a triumphal arch at the stadium was suspected, but not certain.

Though no arch survived intact, it did appear in ancient art. A stone relief from the 3rd century CE depicting a chariot race at the Circus Maximus shows a triumphal arch in the background. This relief can be viewed today at the Museo di Palazzo Trinci in Foligno, Italy.

In the 9th century CE, a Swiss monk toured Rome and recorded his findings in the ‘Einsiedeln Itinerary’ as a guide to this important Christian city. The guide records that at the Circus Maximus, an inscription on a triumphal arch proclaimed that “The Senate and People of Rome [dedicate this arch] to the Emperor Titus […], because by his father’s counsel and good auspices, he conquered the people of Judaea and destroyed the city of Jerusalem, which all of the generals, kings, and peoples before him had either failed to do or even to attempt.”

Based on the layout, the arch would have stood at the entrance to the Circus Maximus, and people would enter through the arch to attend the races. In 2015, the images shown in art and long held suspicions were validated when archaeologists unearthed the remains of this second Arch of Titus. This arch stood nearly 50 feet high and 56 feet wide, and was larger than the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum. Fragments of this arch, seen in the photo above, can be seen today in the remains of the Circus Maximus in Rome.

Agricultural Technology – Then and Now

In this week’s parshah, after the nation sinned by building the golden calf, God says to Moses, “Leave this place, you and the people you brought up out of Egypt, and go up to the land I promised on oath to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob…Go up to the land flowing with milk and honey. But I will not go with you, because you are a stiff-necked people and I might destroy you on the way.”

It is generally understood that the honey of the ‘land of milk and honey’ refers to date honey, or date jam. Over 2000 years ago Israel learned to produce the finest date honey through agricultural technology. Technology today may help revive this glorious past.

Pliny the Elder was a 1st century CE advisor to the Roman emperor Vespasian and the author of The Natural History, an encyclopedic compendium of nature and natural phenomena. He wrote extensively about agriculture and horticulture. About date palms he wrote, “But if these trees are remarkable for their abundance and fruitfulness, it is in Judea that they enjoy the greatest repute.”

The palm tree became a symbol for Judea. After the Romans destroyed the second temple in Jerusalem, the emperor Vespasian issued ‘Judea Capta’ coins, with an image of a bound woman sitting beneath a palm tree. This coin can be seen in the photo above, taken at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The inscription on the coin is IVDAEA CAPTA, meaning ‘Judaea conquered.’ Because the coin was not of gold or silver, it is also stamped SC at the bottom, meaning ‘Senatus Consulto,’ that the value was ensured by a decree of the Roman Senate. During the Bar Kochba revolt against Rome in 132-135 CE, the rebels minted their own coins to demonstrate their independence, and the palm tree was stamped onto many coins.

Date seeds survive in abundance at archaeological sites in Israel. Generally speaking, seeds contain an outer shell that can protect the seed’s DNA for long periods of time. Under the right conditions the seed life can be extended for vastly longer periods of time. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway is a doomsday vault meant to preserve seeds in sub-freezing temperatures so that the seeds can survive in the event of a catastrophe.

Date seeds managed to survive for over 2000 years in Israel’s dry conditions. A study of the Judean date DNA showed that the seed was most closely related to Egyptian date seeds, but was cross-bred with other seeds to produce a better date, an example of ancient Israel using technology in agriculture. With preserved seeds, scientists are attempting to revive the renowned ancient Judean date palm. A 2000 year old date seed was planted in 2005. It sprouted a male date tree that today grows and can be visited at Kibbutz Keturah, just north of Eilat in Israel.

For Whom the Bell Tolled

This week’s parshah lists the garments that the priests and high priest wore during the tabernacle service when the nation of Israel was wandering through the desert after leaving Egypt. These laws would have been applied later when the temple in Jerusalem was active. A remnant of one of these garments from the Second Temple period may have been found.

Exodus 28 lists the garments of the high priests. One garment is a robe. “Make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue cloth, with an opening for the head in its center. There shall be a woven edge like a collar around this opening, so that it will not tear. Make pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet yarn around the hem of the robe, with gold bells between them. The gold bells and the pomegranates are to alternate around the hem of the robe. Aaron must wear it when he ministers. The sound of the bells will be heard when he enters the Holy Place before the Lord and when he comes out, so that he will not die.”

The Temple Mount today serves at the focal point of the Old City of Jerusalem, but the original city lay south of the current city walls, down the hill, in an area today called the City of David. The original town sprouted from this location because it contained a running water spring. To the east of this hill the Kidron Valley runs north past the temple mount. Running west along the hill’s southern edge and then north past the old city is the Valley of Hinnom. Between these two valleys is another north-south valley, the Tyropoeon Valley, that runs just west of the Western Wall.

The Tyropoeon Valley is not entirely recognizable today. Much of it was filled during the building of the Temple Mount’s retaining walls and is obscured by construction. Excavations done along the Western Wall reveal the actual depth of the valley. The rise and fall into the Tyropoeon Valley can be recognized when entering through Jaffa Gate on the western edge of the Old City and walking to the Western Wall. Jaffa Gate sits at a high point, and the steps go down towards the Western Wall plaza.

During excavations along the Western Wall, archaeologists found a golden bell in the area below Robinson’s Arch, in a water channel that drained along the Tyropoeon Valley. The bell itself rings when shaken – not enough to wake the dead, but loud enough that the high priest entering the Holy Place should not die. The loop above the bell indicates that it would have been attached to another object above it, either clothing or jewelry. The channel where the bell was found dates to the late Second Temple period.

The location of the bell puts it in the late Second Temple period, when the temple was still in operation. It is important not to overstate findings in archaeology. The bell could have belonged to any pilgrim or been part of someone’s jewelry, although it would have been a unique piece. But given the description of the high priest’s garments in the Bible, the uniqueness of the piece, and its location near the temple, it raises the possibility that this golden bell may have at one point in time been attached to a high priest’s garments. Time has marched on, so we cannot say definitively for whom this bell tolled, but it may have tolled for the high priest in the Second Temple.

The following video contains more information on the bell and its discovery:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhnWhrrc_M0

When the Menorah Built the Symbol of Rome

This week’s parshah discusses the tabernacle and the objects that would fill it. One such object is the seven branched menorah. Exodus 25 declares: “Make a lampstand of pure gold. Hammer out its base and shaft, and make its flowerlike cups, buds and blossoms of one piece with them. Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand—three on one side and three on the other…then make its seven lamps and set them up on it so that they light the space in front of it.”

Perhaps the most famous depiction of a menorah is the one on the Arch of Titus in Rome, which shows Roman soldiers carrying the menorah. The scene itself was recorded in Josephus’ writings: “Spoil in abundance was carried past. None of it compared with that taken from the Temple in Jerusalem, a golden table many stones in weight and a golden lamp stand, similarly made, which was quite unlike any object in daily use. A center shaft rose from a base, and from the shaft thin branches or arms extended, in a pattern very like that of tridents, each wrought at its end into a lamp. There were seven of these lamps, thus emphasizing the honor paid by the Jews to the number seven.”

The Arch of Titus was a unique structure for its time, and became the template for later arches. That this structure memorializing the menorah’s capture was built in the first place reflects the politics of the time.

The First Jewish Revolt against Roman rule erupted in the year 66 CE. There were long simmering tensions between the Roman rulers and Jewish population that exploded and burned out of control. The Roman emperor Nero sent his armies to suppress the revolt, led by the general Titus Flavius Vespasianus, better known as Vespasian.

Nero himself was not particularly stable. He had his mother murdered, burned Christians alive and according to legend, played the fiddle during a great fire in Rome. A revolt erupted within the Roman Empire and Nero committed suicide. This set off a scramble for leadership and the year 69 become known as the Year of the Four Emperors.

According the Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 56, When [Rabban Johanan b. Zakkai] reached the Romans [and General Vespasian] he said, Peace to you, O king, peace to you, O king. [Vespasian] said: Your life is forfeit on two counts, one because I am not a king and you call me king, and again, if I am a king, why did you not come to me before now?…At this point a messenger came to him from Rome saying, Up, for the Emperor is dead, and the notables of Rome have decided to make you head [of the State].

In his book The Jewish War, the Jewish historian Josephus offers up his own version of the story. Josephus tells Vespasian “although you suppose you have taken captive a forsaken Josephus, I have come as a messenger of great tidings…You are to be Caesar, O Vespasian, and Emperor, you, and this your son.”…”When he had said this, Vespasian at that time did not believe him, supposing that Josephus came up with this as a cunning trick to save himself. But after a little while he came to have faith in this.”

Vespasian did return to Rome to become emperor, and his son Titus took command of the armies suppressing the Jewish revolt. Titus captured Jerusalem and destroyed the temple, leading to the confiscation of the menorah to Rome.

Ordinarily the defeat of a localized rebellion would not have justified a massive building campaign in Rome. But the new Flavian Dynasty, led by Vespasian, may have sought to establish their credentials and authority as a new family at the throne.

Following the fire that consumed Rome during the emperor Nero’s reign, Nero took a large area in the center of Rome for himself, added an artificial lake and a colossal statue of himself. The newly victorious emperor Vespasian returned this land to the people by building the Flavian Amphitheatre, known today as the Colosseum. The Colosseum was an amphitheater that could seat as many as 80,000 people, and was host to public spectacles such as gladiatorial games, animal contests and public executions.

An inscription at the Colosseum was deciphered to read “Imp. T. Caes. Vespasianus Aug. Amphitheatrum Novum Ex Manubis Fieri Iussit,” meaning “The Emperor Caesar Vespasian Augustus had this new amphitheatre erected with the spoils of war.” The only known war this could refer to was the Jewish Revolt. And the spoils of war included slave labor from Jewish captives and the seven branched menorah.

When Vespasian’s son Titus died, or was murdered by his brother Domitian, Domitian continued the building spree. Domitian built the Arch of Titus, commemorating the suppression of the Jewish Revolt. Building an arch for his brother may have had the dual purpose of establishing the family’s legitimacy by connecting it to a military victory and providing Domitian cover for the murder of his brother.

The Arch of Titus is located at the Roman Forum. On one side of the arch, Titus triumphantly enters Rome. On the other, the menorah is carried aloft. This structure became the template for later arches, including the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, the arch at Grand Army Plaza in Brooklyn and the Washington Square Arch in Greenwich Village, NYC. The photo above is of the image on the Arch of Titus at the Roman Forum, in Rome. Professor Steven Fine of Yeshiva University “colorized” the Arch of Titus in Rome, based on paint residues. The re-creation can be seen in this video link:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=24&v=R40uHXbofwA

Imagining Social Justice in the Shephelah

This week’s parshah marks a departure from the narrative that began with Genesis, as it lists a series of interpersonal and religious laws. Biblical scholars often refer to this week’s portion as the Covenant Code, marking it as different than the surrounding texts.

The laws in this week’s parshah show the Torah’s concern for ‘Social Justice,’ as opposed to ‘survival of the fittest.’ Demonstrating God’s stress on these laws, Exodus 22 reads: “Do not take advantage of the widow or the fatherless. If you do and they cry out to me, I will certainly hear their cry. My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless.”

One of the certainties in archaeology is that most everything is uncertain. For almost every piece of evidence that is found, there are disagreements about the interpretation of the find. Oversimplifying matters, there are numerous disagreements between archaeologists at Tel Aviv University (TAU) and archaeologists at Hebrew University (HU) in Jerusalem. Reflecting the natures of secular Tel Aviv and religious Jerusalem, those at TAU tend to argue against the biblical account while those at HU more often argue that the evidence supports the biblical account.

One such argument relates to the presence of ‘six-chambered gates’ at the Canaanite cities of Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer. These were important cities on the trade route to Egypt and Mesopotamia. Archaeology has shown that had a unique gate system that provided an added layer of security at the entrance to their walled cities. The question is, who built these gates?

1 Kings 9 states “Here is the account of the forced labor King Solomon conscripted to build the Lord’s temple, his own palace, the terraces, the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer.” Ezekiel 40 says of Jerusalem, “Inside the east gate were three alcoves on each side; the three had the same measurements, and the faces of the projecting walls on each side had the same measurements.” What Ezekiel is describing is a ‘six-chambered gate.’

Scholars at HU argue that these gates at Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer were built by King Solomon, supporting the biblical account. Scholars at TAU argue that these gates at Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer were not built by Solomon, but rather are from the next century kings of the northern kingdom of Israel.

With this disagreement, attention about the nature of King Solomon’s rule has shifted to another site, Khirbet Qeiyafa. Khirbet Qeiyafa lies in the Shephelah, the lowland hills between the coast and the Judean Hills, on the frontier between the Philistine cities that were on the coast and the Israelites in the hill country. The question is, who controlled this site?

One of the unique features of this site is that there are two gate systems leading into and out of the city. Most walled cities only have on entry and exit point. For this reason, some have identified Khirbet Qeiyafa as the ancient biblical city Shaaraim, meaning ‘two gates.’ This would be the Shaaraim of 1 Samuel 17: “Then the men of Israel and Judah surged forward with a shout and pursued the Philistines to the entrance of Gath and to the gates of Ekron.”

There are factors that suggest the site may be related to a kingdom led from Jerusalem. Its location between the coast and the hills would be of strategic value. Only a state powerful enough to marshal the resources could build a fortified city. Pig bones are prevalent in the coastal Philistine cities, but are absent in the Samarian and Judean Hills, reflecting the different diets of the two populations. At Khirbet Qeiyafa, one does not find pig bones in the 10th century. Another piece of evidence may be the Khirbet Qeiyafa ostracon.

The Khirbet Qeiyafa ostracon is an inscription written on a clay fragment. Its language and meaning are debated. The words on the inscription are not clear, leaving it subject to interpretation. The Philistines are believed to have come from the Aegean or coastal Anatolia and spoke an Indo-European language. The Israelites and the Canaanites spoke closely related Semitic languages. This ostracon is written in a Semitic language. Some argue that a number of the words such as asah and avad are unique to the Hebrew language, and so it would be from Judah or Israel, and would not be Canaanite. This would support the idea that this site is the biblical site of Shaaraim and was attached to a kingdom in Jerusalem.

The reading of the text is also debated. As the picture above shows, the writing is not clear, so interpretation requires some imagination. One possible reading is that it implores justice for the widow and the orphan and concern for the poor and the slave. If this were a correct reading, it would mirror the Bible’s concern for the same. There is no agreement if this a Judean site, if it is Shaaraim, if the inhabitants were Canaanite or Israelite, but it leaves open the possibility for that there was a concern over social justice in the Shephelah.

The Khirbet Qeiyafa ostracon, pictured above, is currently on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.